论文代写:动物意识

27 3月 论文代写:动物意识

论文代写:动物意识

natsoulas叙事研究,道金斯提出,虽然有不同层次的意识和动物可能确实有反思意识,仍然会有识别和分析它正确因为这是一个不同于人类的难度水平。再次借鉴Irene Pepperberg的鸟亚历克斯和格里芬,可以说,鸟类确实描绘的意识水平,但这是一个与人类不同,因此很难确定这种意识作为人类意识的同一水平。

论文代写:动物意识

丹尼特(1995)认为,意识是具有一定的认知能力和认知能力,这些都是只存在于人类的动物所必须的。有意识的意图去行动,人类文化的产物,并增加一个复杂的维度,动物将不会。在介绍了蝙蝠的例子,他认为,蝙蝠虽然有机械使低层处理,将缺乏成熟的判断,“如果有意识和无意识之间的区别,没有什么复杂的像判断,还有可能涉及?”(Dennett,1995,p.693)。丹尼特(1995)论点是基于的假设是没有原则性的方式,人类的意识可以确定。这是支持的论点,道金斯(2015)提出,不同的科学家可能会读人或动物的意识不同。如果真的人类意识本身是难以确定的,那么它又怎能等同于动物意识呢?

论文代写:动物意识

Narrating the research findings of Natsoulas, Dawkins presents that although there are different levels of consciousness and animals might indeed have reflective consciousness, there would still be difficulty in identifying and analyzing it properly as this is on a level different from humans. Once again drawing on Irene Pepperberg’s, birds Alex and Griffin, it can be said that the birds does indeed portray a level of consciousness, but this is on a level different from humans and hence it would be difficult to identify this consciousness as the same as human consciousness.

论文代写:动物意识

Dennett (1995) argues that in order to be conscious it is necessary for the animal to possess certain cognitive powers and that these cognitive powers are only present in the human species. Conscious intentions to act, human cultural artifacts and more add a complexity to the dimension which animals would not have. In presenting the example of the bat, Dennett argues that the bats although having the machinery to make low level processing, will lack sophisticated judgments, “if the distinction between conscious and unconscious has nothing to do with anything sophisticated like judgment, what else it could involve?” (Dennett, 1995, p.693). Dennett’s (1995) argument is based so much on the presumption that there is no principled way in which human consciousness can be determined. This is supported by the argument of Dawkins (2015) who presents that different scientists might read human or animal consciousness differently. If indeed human consciousness by itself is difficult to determine then how can it be equated or be compared to animal consciousness?

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