09 5月 澳洲毕业论文：哲学
De Botton (2001) in the consolations of philosophy states that Seneca had faced a very difficult reality, where he had to struggle between his wishes and reality of life. For Seneca, philosophy was the way to overcome the conflicts between desires and realities. Seneca had to go through serious natural destructions throughout his life. He had to face a destructive earthquake, destruction of Rome and also personal loses. He had been trained in politics to make a career, although due to tuberculosis, he was dragged to severe depression. Thus, due to various encounters with destruction and exceptional disasters, his philosophy has been dedicated to emotional conflicts. Seneca’s philosophy says that anger is a desire, which further moves towards the desire to punish or take revenge.
Being angry means that a person desires some action in return and this will lead to retaliation. The emotions associated with anger can be significantly defined through the person who desires and through the action taken. It could be said that anger for the ancients was different from what it is in current time. The concept of anger has changed and had become different. In the ancient time, anger was more violent and always required revenge, and could never be the silent and righteous anger. It is nature, which provides humans with the awareness about what is right and what is not. The historical changes have taken place, where anger is an emotion that can be linked with actions. The moral psychology of Seneca in De Ira can be represented as a psychic conflict.