12 6月 澳洲代写网：为什么会造成交通拥堵
交通拥堵的主要原因是经常通勤。人们普遍认为旅行会造成交通堵塞。相反，那些为了娱乐或商业和货物运输而旅行的人沿着高速公路而不堵塞城市道路。因此，正是在上下班高峰时间行驶的车辆造成了大量的交通堵塞。交通选项被认为是拥堵的主要解决方案(Younes & Boukerche, 2013)。然而，高峰时段交通服务和日常通勤者之间出现了重叠，在高峰时段结束时，每个人都被堵在了交通堵塞中。来自加拿大的许多证据表明，交通服务应该提高时间效率，提高质量，让更多的人选择交通服务，从而尽量减少道路拥堵。对交通基础设施的投资并不包括慈善或对公众的服务。公共交通基础设施有助于提高公众的生产力和生活质量。因此，对运输和过境设施的投资被认为是一项可靠的投资。许多著名国家都注意到，专用税收被用于发展有益的基础设施。例如，法国使用专门的商业税来支付高速TGV列车网络和通勤铁路系统的资本成本(Ganji et al.， 2012)。
同样，加拿大圣凯瑟琳的各个司法管辖区也采取了创新的步骤，将过境服务外包给私营机构。这一步骤提供了一个机会，以确保节省下来的资金可用于改善过境服务。为过境设施提供资金方面的创新已开始获得重视。像公私伙伴关系(PPP)这样的新金融工具为商业领域的项目提供了灵活的机会，并在项目的运营和维护中为私营合作伙伴提供了积极的作用。另一方面，在公共基金中，公私伙伴关系的资金价值更大，这意味着资源不是集中在劣质项目上。St. Catherine交通运输基础设施的另一个积极迹象是国家基础设施银行(Younes & Boukerche, 2013)。这类银行以相对较低的利率提供贷款，因此交通部门有特权充分利用投资资源，从其他政府机构获得资源，并吸引私人投资者将资金投入交通基础设施项目。
Congestion derives its major share from regular commuters. There is a common perception that travel causes traffic congestion. On the contrary, individuals who travel for pleasure or business and goods transport follow the highway without cramming up the urban roads. Thus, it is the vehicles which run to and from work at peak hours that account for bulk of traffic congestion. Transit options are considered as the primary solution to congestion (Younes & Boukerche, 2013). However, the peak hours see an overlap between transit services and daily commuters, at the end of which everyone is stuck up in a traffic jam. Many evidences from Canada indicate that transit services should be made more time-effective and improvise their quality so that more individuals opt for transit services and thus minimizing the congestion on roads.Investments in traffic infrastructure does not account for charity or service to the public. Public transportation infrastructure contributes to the productivity and quality of life of the public. Thus, investment for transportation and transit facilities is considered as a solid investment. It has been observed in many prominent countries that dedicated taxes are utilized for development of beneficial infrastructure. For example, France used a dedicated tax on business to cover the capital costs of a high speed TGV train network and the commuter rail system (Ganji et al., 2012).
Similarly, various jurisdictions in Canada for St. Catherine have taken an innovative step to outsource transit services to private agencies. This step comes as an opportunity to ensure savings which can be redirected towards improvising transit services. Innovations in funding for transit facilities have started to garner prominence. Fresh financial tools like public-private partnerships (PPP) offer flexible opportunities to projects on the commercial front and offer an active role to the private partner in operation and maintenance of the project. On the other hand, public-private partnerships account for greater value for money on public funds which signify that resources are not focused on inferior projects. Another positive sign for transit and transportation infrastructure in St. Catherine is the state infrastructure bank (Younes & Boukerche, 2013). Such types of banks offer loans at comparatively lower interest rates and thus transportation authorities have the privilege to utilize investments resourcefully, acquire resources from other government agencies and lure private investors to put their money into transit infrastructure projects.