17 5月 澳洲论文抄袭：什么是驯化理论
驯化一般指将野生的或无法控制的东西驯化到日常生活或日常使用中。从这个意义上说，技术被定义为一种狂野的、可控的东西，必须以可能的方式加以管理和采用。驯化过程对宇宙来说是必要的，因为只有这样我们才能从技术中获益。一旦技术从驯化过程中通过，那么它就不再是野性和不可控制的。归化理论处理的概念，描述技术如何嵌入到社会生活或其用户。驯化是一个完整的过程，有不同的阶段。随着时间的推移，技术越来越多地融入到用户或社会的生活中。驯化的概念最早出现在1990年的英国，然后在不同的国家进行了研究(Hans et al.， 2011)。归化理论认为，技术首先通过在日常生活中应用而融入到用户的生活中，用户将其付诸实践。然后根据技术人工改变用户的环境，再根据技术改变用户的适应环境。随着技术的变化，技术使用者提供的反馈将成为创新。
驯化理论最初是用来分析技术是如何被用户采用的，但是随着环境的变化，它已经改变了其创新和商业化的方式(LEON, 2012)。归化的过程并不仅仅止于技术的融合，它还涉及到为技术创造价值的环境。因此，归化理论也分析了技术人工制品的使用者或开发者对技术创新和发展的贡献。归化理论确立了技术创新过程中对用户的一些责任(Hynes, 2009)。归化理论促进了挪用的概念。挪用是将技术融入用户文化，并将技术产品与用户充分融合的过程。归化理论的另一个概念是将技术或技术人工制品转化、改造或重新设计为更具创新性的人工制品。这个概念让技术的使用者参与到技术的开发过程中来。许多作家在其用户的日常生活中展示了技术文化发展的重要性。归化理论反映了在文化中建立起来的关系。为了分析技术的不同方面和有用性，用户或开发人员需要接受许多输入或反馈。关于技术人工制品的投诉或反馈将导致人工制品的进一步改进和改进(Zeder, 2015)。
Domestication in general means taming wild or uncontrollable things into everyday life or in routine use. In this sense, technology has been defined as wild and controllable thing that has to be managed and adopted in possible manner. Domestication process is necessary for the universe because then only we can reap benefit of technology. Once technology passed from domestication process, then it no longer remains wild and uncontrollable. Domestication theory deals with the concept that describes how technology has embedded into life of society or its user. Domestication is a complete process under which different stages are there. As stages passes, technology is more incorporated into life of its user or society. Idea of domestication is first developed in 1990 in UK, and then, it is studied at different countries (Hans et al., 2011). Domestication theory tells that technology is first incorporated into life of its user by adopting it in everyday life and user makes it practice. Afterwards user’s environment is changed according to technology artefact and user adapt environment that is changed by technology. With the change in technology, feedback provided by user of technology will became innovation.
Domestication theory has been initially developed to analyse how technology has been adopted by user, but with the change in environment, it has changed its way towards innovation and commercialisation (LEON, 2012). Domestication process does not end only by incorporating technology, but it deals with the creating value environment for technology. Therefore, domestication theory also analyses contribution of user or developers of the technology artefacts in innovation and development of technology. Domestication theory establishes some responsibilities on users in innovation process of technology (Hynes, 2009). Domestication theory has promoted the concept of appropriation. Appropriation is the process of brining technology into culture of its user and then fully integrates technology artefacts with its user. Another concept that domestication theory is of conversion or remaking or redesigning technology or technology artefacts into more innovative artefact. This concept lets user of technology to participate in development procedure of technology. Many writers have demonstrated importance of technology cultural development among daily life of its users. Domestication theory reflects relationship that has been establishes in cultural. In order to analyse different aspects and usefulness of technology, user or developer is required to take many inputs or feedback. Complaints or feedback regarding technology artefacts will lead toward further improvement and betterment of artefact (Zeder, 2015).