澳洲论文代写:利润

10 1月 澳洲论文代写:利润

新古典与古典经济学派之间的差异:
相反,新古典经济学派在商品交换和使用的时候,把价值看成是货物的供求关系,而不是按照生产成本假设商品价值的经典思想
利润来自市场
利润是扣除生产要素工资和薪金的增值形式的盈余。简而言之,利润就是将劳动力成本扣除后留下的金额用于投入转化为成品。那么剩余的收入就被称为经济,商业和行业的利润(Ritsatos,2014)。古典经济学家亚当·斯密(Adam Smith)通过使用机器和建筑等固定资本来提高劳动生产率,但是如果没有资金或库存方面的经常性资本,它就不能生产任何东西。因此他认为,企业的流动资本通过提供原材料和减少劳动力资源的浪费来帮助形成利润。亚当·斯密认为,资本家和土地所有者必须以利润的形式获得风险的回报。因此,他支持收入再分配,以确保地主拥有的资源在业务中受雇。每种产品在市场上都有一定的交换价值,但这个价值不能等于产品的使用价值,即产品对用户的内在价值。
结论
利润是指企业在生产过程中使用的原材料和零部件的成本从公司总收入中扣除后所获得的收入。用于商品生产过程的电力和服务所产生的成本也被扣除,以准确估计公司的利润。为了正确估算利润,必须从公司总收入中扣除的其他成本是公司固定资产的损耗成本和公司建筑和机器的折旧成本。扣除分配给从事原料转化为成品的企业职工的工资和薪金后,实际计算利润。对于资本家来说,利润只不过是他在生产商品上的成本与商品的销售价格之间的差额。因此,利润似乎是通过销售产品而获得的,但实际流通或商品销售导致实现利润。

Differences between the neo-classical and classical school of economics:
On the contrary, the neo-classical school of economics assumes the value as the demand and supply of goods when they are exchanges and used by individuals in the market in contrast to the classical thought of assuming the value of goods according to their costs of production.
The profits come from in the market
Profits are the surpluses in form of value added from which the wages and salaries of the production factors is deducted. In simple words, profits are that amount of money which is left after the deduction of costs of labor is used in the transformation of inputs into finished products. Then the residual income left is termed as profit for the economy, business and the industry (Ritsatos, 2014). Classical economists Adam Smith the productivity of labor is increased through the use of fixed capital such as machinery and building but it cannot produce anything without the recurring capital of the firm in terms of money or inventory. Thus he concluded that the circulating capital of the firm helps in the formation of profit through furnishing raw materials and reducing the wastages of the labor resources. Adam Smith was of the view that capitalist and owners of the land must be rewarded for their risk taking ability in form of profits. Thus he supported upwards redistribution of income in order to ensure that the resources owned by the landowners are employed in the business. Each product has some exchange value at which it is sold in the market but it cannot be the case that this value is equal to the use value of the product i.e. the intrinsic value of the product for the user.
Conclusion
Profits are the revenues earned by the firm after the cost of raw materials and components used in the production process is deducted from the total income of the company. The costs incurred on the power and services used for the production processes of the goods are also deducted for the accurate estimation of profits of the firm. The other costs which are necessarily deducted from the total revenue of the firm for the correct estimation of profits are costs of wear and tear of fixed assets of the firm and the cost of depreciation of building and machines of the firm. The profits are calculated in real after the deduction of the wages and salaries distributed to the employees of the firm who are engaged in the transformation process of raw materials into finished goods of the firm. For the capitalists profits are simply the differences between the costs incurred by him on the production of goods and the selling price of the product. Thus profits appear to be derived by the sale of products but in real circulation or sale of goods leads to the realization of profits.