02 7月 代写文章：银行政策的调整
储备银行行长每6周决定当前的货币政策是否以适当的方式制定，以确保银行的价格稳定目标得到适当的满足，如果不能满足，则应以何种方式进行政策调整(Krippner, 2013)。在做出是否改变的决定之后，将进行一个全面的决策过程，其中包括对广泛的经济和金融数据范围的审查、对经济的预测以及来自世行业务联系人的数据(Kashyap et al.， 2012)。然后，通过直接改变OCR水平，或通过金融市场发出与市场主流观点不同的货币政策未来走向的信号，来执行调整政策设置的决定。上面提供的图表或流程图说明了在一段时间内，OCR的增加如何影响几个经济因素。这里的意图是提供一个路线图。此外，新西兰的金融体系和银行体系有两个基本特征。
首先，与其他国家的储备银行一样，新西兰央行在货币纸币和硬币发行方面被授予垄断合法性(Wood, 2016)。其次，储备银行也是政府的银行，所有的款项都由中央政府支付。这些款项由储备银行的负债来结算。作为货币垄断供应商和现金负债结算的本质含义是，银行需要具备设定出借和结算现金价格的能力。这个价格在新西兰被称为官方现金利率(OCR)。银行的交易对手方能够以高于存款基金和OCR利率0.5的利率，以OCR的隔夜银行利率从联邦银行获得隔夜现金结算(Krippner, 2013)。因此，OCR是新西兰的基准隔夜利率，因为没有一家银行会为OCR向另一家银行支付较高的利率，或者接受比通过储备银行提供的低存款利率。
The Reserve Bank Governor in every 6 weeks decides on whether present policy of monetary is set in an appropriate manner for ensuring that the price stability objective of the Bank is met appropriately and if not met then the way in which policy adjustment should be done (Krippner, 2013).The decision on whether to change or not is followed by a comprehensive decision making process that is inclusive of a review of a wide economic and finance data range, projections of economy and data from the business contacts of the Bank (Kashyap et al., 2012). A decision for adjusting the settings in policy is then implemented through changing the OCR level directly or through financial markets signalling the course in future for monetary policies which are different from the prevailing view in the market. The diagram or flow chart provided above illustrates a stylized representation on how several economic elements are affected through OCR increase over a period of time. The intention here is serving a roadmap. Also there are two essential features of the financial system and banking system of New Zealand.
The first is the same as other reserve banks in other nations which is the fact that the RBNZ has been granted monopoly legality over the currency notes and coins issuance (Wood, 2016). Secondly, reserve bank also serves as the bank of government wherein all payments are accrued to the central government. These payments are settled in the liabilities of Reserve Bank. The essential implication of being the currency monopoly supplier and settlement for liabilities of cash is the fact that bank needs to have the ability of setting price at which it can lend and settle cash. This price, in New Zealand is known as the Official cash Rate (OCR). The counterparties in banks have the ability of obtaining overnight settlement of cash from the Federal Bank at 0.5 interests above the funds of deposit and OCR with the overnight bank rate at the OCR (Krippner, 2013). Therefore, the OCR is the benchmark rate of overnight interest in New Zealand as no bank would generally pay a high interest rate to another bank for OCR or accept a low deposit rate than offered through the Reserve Bank.