关于他们之间的关系，有几种相互矛盾的假设。已有研究发现，银行集中度与银行盈利能力之间存在正相关关系。这种关系的逻辑来自两个方面:产业增长的结构-行为-绩效(SCP)范式和有效结构假说。结构-行为-绩效假说认为，市场环境对市场结构有暂时的影响。这进而影响市场行为，进而影响企业的短期盈利能力。1933年，Chamberlin和Robinson (Faccarello & Kurz)首先提出了这个假设。在存在政治和法律干预等其他因素的情况下，市场的行为会有所不同，但总的来说，预计集中度会影响公司的盈利能力。市场结构与企业盈利能力之间存在反馈回路，两者相互影响。
有效结构假说是Demesetz在1973年提出的。该理论的基本命题是公司的结构在很大程度上决定了其在市场中的表现。这一假说认为，结构更好的公司往往表现得更有效率，赢得更多的竞争，最终变得更有利可图(Yoshiro, Mitsuhiko & Hirofumi, 2005)。上述两种假设都从本质上指出，随着企业在市场中的集中度提高，企业的盈利能力将直接或间接提高。然而，近年来，这两种假设都有很多争议。虽然有研究证明了这些假设的有效性，但最近也有几项基于更多样化的地理位置和更近期的数据集的研究也推翻了这些假设。
There have been several competing hypotheses about their relationships. Some studies exist that find a positive relationship between the concentration of the banks and their profitability. The logic for this relationship comes from two sources: the Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) paradigm of industrial growth and the efficient structure hypothesis. The Structure-Conduct-Performance hypothesis says that there is a temporary effect of the market environment on the structure of the market. This in turn affects the conduct of the market which then impacts the short-term profitability of the firms. This was initially posited by Chamberlin and Robinson in 1933 (Faccarello & Kurz). In presence of other factors like political and legal interventions, the market behaves differently, but in general, it is expected that the concentration will affect the profitability of the firm. A feedback loop exists between the market structure and the profitability of the firms so that both cause changes in each other.
The Efficient Structure Hypothesis was developed by Demesetz in 1973. The basic proposition of this theory is that the structure of a company largely determines its performance in the market. This hypothesis states that companies which are better in their structure tend to behave more efficiently, win more competitions and become more profitable in the end (Yoshiro, Mitsuhiko & Hirofumi, 2005).Both the above hypothesis essentially point out that as the concentration of the firms will increase in the market, their profitability will increase directly and indirectly. However, in the recent times, both these hypotheses have been disputed a lot. While there are studies which prove the validity of these hypotheses, there have been several recent studies that also disprove them based on more diverse geographies and more recent datasets.