03 7月 essay 代寫：如何管理文化多樣性的員工
根據Karpin等人(2007)的觀點，從這些劣勢中，當試圖管理具有文化多樣性的員工時，會出現兩個關鍵問題(Topi, 2004)。管理者需要認識到他的對比和價值，並利用每個人給他們工作的組織帶來的獨特優勢。當員工之間通過差異的培養、認可和歡迎來重視多樣性時，這些人就很難學習和發展他們獨特的才能，或者顯示出他們是組織中有效的成員。有許多行為可能會阻礙以民族為中心的過程:這是一種觀念，即個體群體以及亞文化天生就優於其他文化和群體。民族中心主義的觀點導致了單一文化的產生，這是一種接受唯一的做事方式和個人信仰以及價值觀的文化(Zakaria et al.， 2004)。這反過來又導致假定個性獨特的個人有某種缺陷，而多樣性又導致威脅到順利運作的組織，而對其抱怨的個人本質上過於敏感。這種不准確的刻板印象和假設阻礙了利用獨特能力和才能的努力。
根據Sadri等人(2010)，另一個問題是玻璃天花板。這是一種無形的障礙，導致少數族裔和女性從最高管理層中分離出來(Certo – 2015)。他們有能力越過玻璃天花板，承認管理層的存在，但也有一些無形的障礙，會阻礙他們個人的進步。 Marina et al.(2012)認為，為了能夠有效地管理多樣化的員工隊伍，必須將重點放在4個基本組件之上(Peretz et al.， 2015)。首先，需要所有組織成員具有真正的意願、支持和承諾。戰略管理對多樣化的支持和承諾是必不可少的，同時組織級別較低的承諾，尤其是直線經理的承諾。第二，管理人員需要通過結構變化、政策變化以及支持多樣化的製度變化來增加其靈活性。這些變化包括招聘和職業發展的公平性，以及通過提供靈活的優勢和項目來滿足獨特的需求(Ferraro et al.， 2015)。
From such disadvantages, according to Karpin et al. (2007), there are 2 key issues that emerge when trying to manage a workforce with cultural diversity (Topi, 2004). Managers require recognizing he contrasts and the values as well as using the unique advantages every person brings to their organization where they work. When diversity is valued through differences cultivation, recognition and welcoming among the work force employees, it can get difficult for these individuals to learn and develop their unique talents or show that they are effective members of the organization. There are various behaviours which can lead towards hindering the process Ethnocentric: This is the notion that individual group as well as subculture are superior inherently with other cultures and groups. An ethnocentric perspective results in producing monoculture which is a culture that is of the acceptance of the only one way to do things and individual belief set as well as values(Zakaria et al., 2004). This in turn leads towards assuming that individuals who are distinct have some deficiency and that diversity leads towards threatening the smooth organization functioning and that individuals complaining over it are over-sensitive in nature. Such inaccurate stereotypes and assumptions result in hindering the efforts of taking benefit of unique abilities and talents.
Another issue is the glass ceiling according to Sadri et al, (2010). This is a barrier of invisible nature resulting in separating minorities as well as female’s from positions in the top management (Certo 2015). They have the ability of looking up across the glass ceiling and acknowledge the management but there are obstacles of invisible nature which can block their individual advancements. According to Marina et al, (2012), in order to be able to manage effectively, a diverse workforce, it is essential to focus over 4 essential components (Peretz et al., 2015). First, there needs to be will, support and commitment of genuine nature from all organization members. Support and commitment of strategy management towards diversity is essential along with low organization level commitment especially of the line managers. Secondly, managers require increasing their flexibility through structural change, change in policies as well as systems for supporting diversity. Such changes are inclusive of fairness within recruitment and advancement of career along with accommodation of unique requirements through provision of flexible advantages and also programs (Ferraro et al., 2015).