08/03/2019

essay 代寫:中心位置理論

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essay 代寫:中心位置理論
Walter Christaller提出了中心位置理論。它從一個整體的角度解釋問題,基於具體的地方。中心區位理論解釋了城市地理中的空間分佈。它試圖理解這個過程中的細微差別和復雜的因素(徐,2012)。它包括了當地的經濟、人員和在當地發揮作用的企業。在這個中心位置理論中考慮的主要變量是市場的閾值。在這方面,閾值被理解為需要達到的經濟活動的基本水平。在這個概念中,一旦一個地方的市場門檻達到,它就會有擴張的趨勢(Hsu, 2012)。由於這些擴張,交通增加了,資源的效用增加了,商業機構也增加了。從總體上看,市場和企業在一段時間內往往會增長。由於這一因素,該地區的商業機構和隨後的交通也增加了。這總是導致交通堵塞。下面詳細探討交通擁擠的經濟學。要分析交通擁擠及其模式,應該從三個方面或變量進行基本分析。第一個因素是兩地之間的實際距離(Knox & McCarthy, 2012)。

essay 代寫:中心位置理論
距離取決於實際的空間分佈。如果一個特定的地方距離是10英里,那麼這個地方的空間分佈和對稱性就會增加實際走過的距離。第二個變量是兩地之間流動所涉及的貨幣旅行成本。這是往返兩地的實際費用。第三個重要的可變因素是應該考慮的時間成本。時間成本可以定義為陷阱時間乘以該地點的機會成本。基於這些因素,確定了該地區的交通狀況。經濟理論試圖解釋,由於交通擁堵的“外部性”,可能會出現許多潛在的市場失靈(Knox & McCarthy, 2012)。外部性是一個術語,用來表示商品的生產或消費對其他方面有相當大影響的情況。在製造產品的過程中,這些都沒有考慮到生產或消費。道路擁擠通常是一個永恆的因素。一個驅動程序的行為會影響其他驅動程序,從而引發連鎖反應。這種道路擁堵也是導致市場失靈的決定性因素(Knox & McCarthy, 2012)。當這些交易成本與產品的邊際效用相比很高時,就會出現市場失靈。

essay 代寫:中心位置理論

Walter Christaller proposed the central place theory. It explains issues from a holistic angle based on the specifics of the place. Central place theory explains about the spatial distribution in urban geography. It tries to understand about the nuances and the intricate factors that are involved in this process (Hsu, 2012). It encompasses economics of the place, people and the businesses that function in the place. Primary variable that is considered in this central place theory is the threshold of the market. Threshold in this context is understood as the basic level of economic activity that needs to be reached. In this concept once the market threshold of a place is reached its tendency to expand (Hsu, 2012). Owing to these expansions there is an increase in traffic, an increase in utility of resources and a rise in business establishments. From a general perspective markets and the businesses of the place tend to increase over a period of time. Owing to the factor the number of business establishments and subsequent traffic of the place also increases. This invariably leads to traffic congestion. The economics of traffic congestion is probed in detail in the following. To analyze traffic congestion and its patterns there should be fundamental analysis of three facets or variables. The number one factor is the actual distance between the places (Knox & McCarthy, 2012).

essay 代寫:中心位置理論
Distance depends on the actual spatial distribution. If a particular place is at a 10-mile distance, the spatial distribution and symmetry of the place adds to the actual distance traveled. Second variable is the monetary travel cost involved for the movement between the places. It is the actual cost involved for the travel between places. The third important variable factor is the time cost that should be factored. Time cost can be defined as the trap time times the opportunity cost of the place. Based on these factors, traffic of the place is determined. Economic theory tries to explain that there are a numerous potential market failures that could arise because of “externalities” of traffic congestion (Knox & McCarthy, 2012). Externality is a term that is used to denote situations where the production or consumption of good has considerable impact on other facets. These are not factored in the production or consumption during the manufacturing products. Road congestion is usually an eternality factor. The actions of one driver affect the other drivers initiating a chain reaction. This road congestion also is a determining factor for market failures (Knox & McCarthy, 2012). Market failures arise when these are high transaction costs involved when compared to the marginal utility of the product.

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