04 7月 功課代寫：北阿坎德邦農村地區的一些觀察
考慮到正在發生的災難和居住者所面臨的問題，可持續生計框架可以被設計成提供“一種關於就業的心態，這種心態要求多面性，並闡明影響就業的眾多因素”(DFID, 1999 )。利用這種可持續設計，可以分析不同的個人集會如何監督和組合他們可以獲得的不同經濟資產，並描述圍繞這些資產計劃的政治機構、政策和結構的不同當局。由於認識到任何社會經濟民主制度的破裂並不是在特定的時限內固定的，這一框架可能被視為一個概念模型，代表了當地的相互背景，同時也具有適應性。該框架已應用於印度北阿坎德邦的北部地區，該地區正因切變近而受到喜馬拉雅逆境的影響。根據以上設計的框架模型，以下是來自北阿坎德邦農村地區的一些觀察:人力資本(H):識字率和性別比例有利於男性，表明女性地位較低。
自然資本(N):婦女沒有土地。只有42%的人種植傳統作物，其餘土地都被經濟作物所佔據，從而帶來巨額收入。由於經濟的不斷發展，森林面積正在縮小，婦女們不得不長途跋涉，尋找天然的燃料木材和飼料來養活家人和牲畜(Rao, K.S.和Nautiyal, S。,2003)。金融資本(F):在這種情況下，所有產生的現金流都由男子持有，而婦女的現金流則被忽視。此外，這些婦女並不知道政府為她們提供的財政支持。有形資本(P):該區域內的基礎設施建設活動主要使用人力，包括道路建設、技術進步等。為了幫助婦女去殼，一些機器被安裝起來，但在工作時間是無用的(Rao, K.S.和Nautiyal, S。,2003)。社會資本:在村委會中，男性戶主更傾向於提出自己的觀點，而女性成員即使在場也不會在會議上發言。此外，任何積極參與社會活動的婦女組織都無權在村長面前作出任何重大決定。
Keeping in view the calamities being occurring and the issues faced by the habitants, the Sustainable Livelihood framework can be designed to offer “a state of mind about employments that requests multifaceted nature and clarifies the numerous components that influence jobs” (DFID, 1999). Utilization of this sustainable design empowers an analysis of how distinctive gatherings of individuals oversee and combine varying economic assets accessible to them, and delineates the differing authorities of the political institutions, policies and structures being planned around them. Perceiving that the breaks in any socio-economic democratic system are not ﬁxed in a particular time limit, this framework is probably seen as a conceptual model, representing the local mutual contexts and at the same time adaptable too. This framework has been applied in the upper regions of Uttarakhand in India which is getting affected by the Himalayan adversity due to its shear nearness.According to the above designed framework model, below are some observations from the rural area of Uttarakhand:Human Capital (H): Literacy rates & gender ratio favors males, suggesting lower status of women.
Natural Capital (N): No land availability to women. Only about 42% of individuals are growing traditional crops, rest of the land is being dominated by cash crops to bring in hefty revenue. Forests are getting shrink due to increased development and women have to travel a greater distance in search of natural fuel-wood and fodders to sustain their families and animal livestock (Rao, K.S. and Nautiyal, S., 2003).Financial Capital (F): All the cash flow being generated are held by men and women’s are getting neglected in this case. Also the women are not aware of government launched for them in terms of financial support.Physical Capital (P): Mostly men power was employed in the infrastructure building activities within the region including construction of roads, technological advancements, etc. Some machineries were set up for de-husking to help women, but were useless during operative hours (Rao, K.S. and Nautiyal, S., 2003).Social Capital (S): In village panchayats, male heads of the family are favored to put their points and women member even if they are present do not speak up in such meetings. Also, any socially active women organization is not having the rights to make any major decisions in front of the Sarpanch (head of village panchayat).