论文代写:安全文化与民族文化相关

20 6月 论文代写:安全文化与民族文化相关

论文代写:安全文化与民族文化相关

在高后果产业中,民族文化作为安全绩效的重要贡献者,已被研究多年(Alam, 2015;Casey, Riseborough, & Krauss, 2015;Havold,2007;陆、莱、伦、程,2012)。大多数与安全相关的国家文化研究都是基于Hofstede(1980)的研究。Hofstede(1980)在研究中使用了四个因素来描述国家文化:权力距离、不确定性规避、个人主义和男子气概。在霍夫斯泰德的框架工作中,权力距离是指个体对等级的感知。它描述了决策的自由度(Hofstede, 1980)Van Oudenhoven, 2001)。不确定性规避代表接受不确定性和模糊性的程度(Hofstede, 1980),个人主义代表人们以自己的方式完成任务的自由(Van Oudenhoven, 2001)。在高后果产业中,较低的权力距离、较低的个人主义、较高的不确定性规避是首选(Alam, 2015;陆et al .,2012)。同时,Van Oudenhoven(2001)发现组织文化与当地民族文化之间存在着高度的相关性。

论文代写:安全文化与民族文化相关

因此,基于这一框架工作,关于民族文化在工作场所安全中的作用,特别是在石油行业和交通行业(Alam, 2015;凯西et al .,2015;Havold,2007;陆et al .,2012)。Casey et al.(2015)发现,民族文化影响对安全的认知。此外,Havold(2007)发现组织的安全文化与一定的民族文化特征相关,如权力距离、不确定性规避、个人主义等。Merritt(2000)发现Hofstede的模型在航空业是可复制的。从那时起,研究已经确定,飞行员在驾驶舱内执行任务的方式有很大的差异,基于他们的民族文化特征,并且文化特征的差异对安全有明显的影响(Helmreich, Wilhelm, Klinect, & Merritt, 2001;约翰斯顿,1993)。例如,亚洲的机组人员往往工作在一个比西方同行更有层次性的系统中。换句话说,亚洲船员之间的能量距离比西方船员要大。因此,亚洲船员通常对等级制度更为敏感,他们往往会选择忽略自己所见所闻,以避免冒犯上级和老年人(廖,2015)。

论文代写:安全文化与民族文化相关

In high-consequence industries, national culture, as an important contributor to safety performance, has been studied for many years (Alam, 2015; Casey, Riseborough, & Krauss, 2015; Håvold, 2007; Lu, Lai, Lun, & Cheng, 2012). Most safety related national culture studies were built based on the research from Hofstede (1980). In the research, Hofstede (1980) used four factors to describe national culture: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity.In Hofstede’s frame work, power distance refers to the individual’s perception of hierarchy. It describes the degree of freedom in decision-making (Hofstede, 1980)Van Oudenhoven, 2001). Uncertainty avoidance represents the degree of accepting uncertainty and ambiguity (Hofstede, 1980), and individualism represents the freedom of people to complete their tasks in their own way(Van Oudenhoven, 2001). In high-consequence industries, a relatively low power distance, low individualism, and a high avoidance of uncertainty are preferred(Alam, 2015; Lu et al., 2012).At the same time, Van Oudenhoven (2001) found that there is a high correlation between the organizational culture and its local national cultures.

论文代写:安全文化与民族文化相关
Thus, there have been numerous discussions regarding the role of national culture in work place safety based on this frame work, particularly in the oil industry and the transportation industry(Alam, 2015; Casey et al., 2015; Håvold, 2007; Lu et al., 2012).Casey et al. (2015) found that national culture impacts perceptions of safety. In addition, Håvold (2007) revealed that the safety culture of an organization is related to certain national culture traits, such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and individualism.Merritt (2000) found that Hofstede’s model is replicable in the aviation industry. Since then, research has established that there are substantial differences in the way pilots conduct their tasks in the cockpit based on their national culture traits and that the cultural trait differences have clear implications for safety (Helmreich, Wilhelm, Klinect, & Merritt, 2001; Johnston, 1993). For example, Asian airline crews tend to work in a system that is more hierarchical than their Western counterparts. In other words, the power distance is greater among the Asian crews than in the Western crews. As a result, Asian crews are usually more sensitive to hierarchy, and they tend to avoid offending superiors and the elderly by choosing to ignore what they have seen and heard (Liao, 2015).