碳氢化合物是来自与沉积物有机质埋。他们埋在压力和温度上升,直到有机物(干酪根)是裂缝和碳氢化合物的释放。富含有机物沉积易生油岩(黑色页岩)是关键。煤优秀gas-prone烃源岩罗斯et al。(2008)。石油通常比气体生成的以较低的温度和压力,如果源岩是适当的。烃类从源床床载体(初次运移),它们以自己的方式(二次迁移)一个陷阱。载体床通常储集层。注意主向下迁移可能发生如果条件合适的压力。水库需要多孔透水岩石。这通常是砂岩或碳酸盐岩。不太常见的水库包括破碎岩石(砂岩、页岩、碳酸盐、甚至火成岩和变质岩)。有许多不同风格的陷阱,包括结构、地层和组合类型。断层或褶皱层在地下将提供机会,碳氢化合物被困。结构和密封(下图)有时会结合在一起作为一个“陷阱”。地下陷阱需要一个有效的密封,以防止油气泄漏。通常密封是一种细粒岩石(页岩)或一个蒸发(盐)。为了焦点碳氢化合物到一个位置,密封应广泛的横向和纵向相对较厚。所有这些因素都发生在正确的顺序。陷阱已经形成之前,石油/天然气生成和迁移,使碳氢化合物可以被困。成熟水平和迁移路径是由地质重构(埋藏历史)彼得斯et al .(1993)。
第一个标准石油系统的定位是一个沉积盆地,即一个相对厚沉积物的积累。只有在这样一个盆地,我们才能希望实现上面列出的所有元素。孢粉地层学实际上是这样定义它是使用“孢粉学”找出“地层学”,这就是为什么当他们组合在一起成为一个孢粉地层学的形式。它是通过使用“进化”(发展)或“灭绝”(消灭)和物种的第一个和最后一个出场,表现出现在化石的记录。这项研究由年轻的2002年,使用的样本日期划分方案的基础上完成的工作内维斯et al .(1972),克莱顿et al .(1977、1978),和克莱顿(1985)的研究工作。
Hydrocarbons are sourced from organic matter buried with the sediment. As they are buried pressure and temperature rise until the organic matter (kerogen) is cracked and hydrocarbon is released. Organic-rich sediments (black shales) are key oil-prone source rocks. Coals are excellent gas-prone source rocks Ross et al. (2008). Oil is usually generated at lower temperatures and pressures than gas – if the source rock is appropriate. Hydrocarbons move from source beds to carrier beds (primary migration) in which they find their way (secondary migration) to a trap. Carrier beds are often reservoir layers. Note primary migration can occur downwards if the pressure conditions are suitable. A reservoir requires a porous and permeable rock. This is usually either a sand stone or a carbonate. Less common reservoirs include fractured rocks (sandstone, shales, carbonates, and even igneous or metamorphic rocks). There are a number of different styles of trap, including structural, stratigraphic and combination types. A faulted or folded layer in the subsurface will provide opportunity for hydrocarbons to be trapped. Structure and seal (below) are sometimes taken together as a ‘trap’. A subsurface trap requires an effective seal to prevent hydrocarbons leaking to the surface. Usually a seal is a fine grained rock (shale) or an evaporate (salt). In order to focus hydrocarbons to a location, the seal should be extensive laterally and relatively thick vertically. All these factors have to occur in the correct sequence. The trap has to form before the oil/gas is generated and migrates so that the hydrocarbon can be trapped. The maturation level and migration path are determined by geological reconstructions (burial history) Peters et al. (1993).
The first criterion for a petroleum system is to locate a sedimentary basin – ie a relatively thick accumulation of sediments. Only in such a basin can we expect to fulfil all the elements listed above. Palynostratigraphy is actually defined in such a way that it is the usage of ‘Palynology’ to find out ‘Stratigraphy’, which is why when combined together they become a single term in the form of Palynostratigraphy. It is done by using the ‘evolution’ (development) or ‘extinction’ (extermination) and the species’ first and the last appearances and manifestations present in the record of fossils. The study conducted by Young 2002, used the samples which were dated based on the zonation schemes of the work done by Neves et al. (1972), Clayton et al. (1977, 1978), and the research work of Clayton (1985).