04 8月 論文 代寫價格 -工會的作用
本篇文章講述的是工會的作用。以工作能力為基礎的工資制度是20世紀90年代以來由企業發展起來的。這種工資制度的主要焦點是員工在一段時間內的個人表現，可以與預先確定的目標進行比較(Lucas, Lupton, and Mathieson, 2006)。日本目前流行的工資制度與真正的績效工資制度非常相似，即年薪制。 10%的日本大公司已經引進了這個系統(Sako and Sato, 1997)。這種工資制度適用於高級管理人員和中層管理人員，但不適用於低層員工。本篇論文 代寫價格文章由澳洲論文人EducationRen教育網整理，供大家參考閱讀。
The wage system of job ability-based wages is developed by companies since 1990s. This main focus of this wage system is on employee’s individual performance over a period of time that can be compared against the pre-determined goals (Lucas, Lupton, and Mathieson, 2006). This current prevalent wage system in Japan is quite similar with true performance based pay system, which is known as annual salary system. 10% of the large Japanese companies have introduced this system (Sako and Sato, 1997). This wage system is used for senior managers and middle level managers but not for low level employees.
In manufacturing firms for example such as Bridgestone, The unions in the company have a conciliatory attitude for assuring job security for its members in salary negotiations. A cooperative behaviour is guaranteed by the unions in case similar behaviour is provided by the companies to them (Hagarian, 2010). The unions cooperatively integrate and participate in wage systems, training programs and unemployment systems of the organizations. In situations where unions do not fulfil their part of agreement, then the reliance of the company is on the role played by the organized business as the last defender.
With the help of non-union representation practices in an innovative and effective manner for structuring, business expansion and the representation of employees in decision making process are the efforts made by the Japanese organizations for developing participation in management (Clegg and Kono, 2002, p.270). The employee associations in Japan are of two types. About 1/3 organizations are voice-oriented and the rest 2/3 focus on recreational activities.
In Japanese manufacturing firms for example in Pentax, training is done at two levels firstly in overseas subsidiaries for the development of roles played by top management and executives and training of Japanese employees group so that they can play effective roles at globally. This is done with an aim of fostering the career of regionally hired employees so that they can become effective business leaders and play efficient roles in top managements in regional subsidiaries (Abe and Gourvish, 1997).