库存服务成本将包括保险、税收等成本。同样，还有订单成本、再订单成本、仓储风险管理成本等等。因此，存货管理本身就成为一个单独的关注领域，必须加以处理，以确保在实际中实现存货使用的生产力。在实际场景中也可以观察到这一点。格里·马什(Gerry Marsh)是一名咨询师，为世界各地的企业管理库存。例如，他“已经证明，能够利用供应链产生比竞争对手更多的现金流的公司，即使公司之间的每股收益和增长率相似，通常也会有更高的股价倍数”(Mittal, 2013，第1段)。
In careful management of inventories, materials management plays an important role. The materials or the inventory requirement must be anticipated. Secondly, they must be sourced and obtained and introduced into the organization. Until the time such inventory leaves the organization it has to be monitored as a current asset of the organization. In order to avoid the supply chain distortion and consequential bull whip effect it is necessary to introduce elements of safety stock for preventing stock outs and determine a carefully assessed reorder point. Inventory management has to be such that it is able to adjust and balance across associated costs such as capital cost, the storage space cost, inventory service cost, inventory risk cost, order setup cost and the order cost. Capital cost is the major inventory cost and is usually the asset value of inventory held. Storage space cost are the cost associated with storing the inventory such as that of having a storage space, the form of heating system needed, the form of transportation, money for trucks and more.
Inventory service costs will include the costs of insurance, taxes and more. Similarly, there are order costs, reorder costs, costs of storage risks management and more. Inventory management hence becomes a separate area of concern in itself and has to be handled in order to ensure that productivity with inventory use is achieved in reality. This is also observed in practical scenarios. Gerry Marsh is a consultant who works with inventory management for companies across the world and in his opinions, it is not just keeping inventories but managing them intelligently that results in better productivity. For instance, he “has shown that firm which are able to use the supply chain to generate more cash flow than competitors will usually have higher stock price multiples even if earnings per share and growth rates are similar between the companies” (Mittal, 2013, para 1).